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  • 菩提达摩祖师来中国(中英双语)

      一华开五叶,结果自然成。

      One flower blossoms with five petals, and the fruit will come ripe all by itself.

      梁武帝普通元年(公元五二○年)九月,菩提达摩祖师(中国禅宗初祖)从印度乘船来到中国,抵达广州豋岸,来到金陵(南京),和梁武帝问答。因不契机,离开金陵,北往洛阳。路过神光法师讲经处,顺便进来,发现神光法师辩才无碍,有天华乱坠、地涌金莲的境界,知道是载法之器。此时,神光法师见一位印度和尚来听经,不禁生起我慢之心。讲完经之后,就在达摩祖师面前打个招呼。

      In a.d. 520 in China, during the ninth month of the initial year of the Putong reign-period of the Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty, the first Patriarch of the Chan School, Venerable Bodhidharma, arrived in Canton by boat from India. He traveled to Jinling, which is modern Nanjing, and had an interview with Emperor Wu. But the two of them had a misunderstanding, and he left Jinling, heading north to Luoyang. En route, he passed by Dharma Master Shen-guang's (Holy Light) Sutra-lecture gathering. Since time allowed, the Patriarch stopped in to listen. He heard the Dharma Master's eloquence and appreciated that he could make celestial flowers fall from the sky and inspire the earth to send forth golden-hued lotuses. He recognized in Master Shenguang the capacity to be a vessel of the Dharma. Master Shenguang saw the Indian Patriarch Bodhidharma walk into his assembly, and he could not restrain a feeling of superiority and pride. When his lecture was finished, he caught the eye of the Patriarch.

      达摩祖师提出问题:「请问法师,你在这里做什么?」

      Patriarch Bodhidharma asked him, “Excuse me, Dharma Master, what exactly are you doing here?”

      神光说:「正在讲经。」

      Master Shenguang replied, “I'm explaining Sutras.”

      达摩又问:「你讲的是什么经?」

      “What Sutra are you explaining?” asked Patriarch Bodhidharma.

      神光不耐烦地说:「你从什么地方来?」

      Master Shenguang impatiently retorted, “Where are you from?”

      达摩说:「从印度来。」

      “I'm from India,” answered the Patriarch Bodhidharma.

      神光又问:「难道印度不讲经吗?」

      “Do you mean to tell me they don't explain Sutras in India?”

      达摩说:「当然要讲经。不过,讲的是『无字真经』。」

      “Of course they do, but the Sutras they explain are the wordless, true Sutras,” replied the Patriarch.

      神光又问:「什么是无字真经?」

      “And what is a wordless, true Sutra?”

      达摩说:「无字真经,就是一张白纸。你所讲的经,黑的是字,白的是纸,你讲它做什么?」

      The Patriarch replied, “It's simply a piece of blank paper. In the Sutra you're explaining, what's black are the words and what's white is the paper. What in the world are you explaining that for?”

      神光一听,心里不高兴,就说:「我讲经,教人了生死。」

      This question angered Master Shenguang, and he replied, “My Sutra lectures teach people to put an end to birth and death!”

      达摩说:「你凭什么教人了生死?你自己的生死还没有了呢!」

      Patriarch Bodhidharma asked, “How are you qualified to teach people that? You haven't put an end to your own birth and death yet!”

      神光一想,这个黑和尚一定是魔王化身,来毁谤三宝,我要试一试他的法力如何?于是用念珠(铁制,作为降魔武器)朝达摩祖师脸上打去。此时,达摩没有防备,不幸被击中,门牙被打掉两颗。菩提达摩一想,圣人(达摩祖师是证果圣人)的牙齿如果落在地上,那里就会大旱三年。为慈悲众生起见,于是他将两颗门牙吞到肚中,所以留下「打落门牙和血吞」的成语。达摩一言不发,转身走出道场,踩一芦草,渡过长江,来到河南嵩山少林寺,面壁九年思禅机。

      Master Shenguang reflected, “This dark-skinned monk must certainly be a demon-king who's transformed to come slander the Triple Jewel. I had better put his Dharma-power to the test!” At that, he pulled out his iron recitation beads, which served as a suitable weapon for quelling demons, and swung them hard against the Patriarch Bodhidharma's face. The Patriarch was caught unprepared, and the sudden attack knocked out two of his front teeth. Bodhidharma was a sage who had realized the fruition of the spiritual path, and he reflected, “Whenever a sage's teeth fall to the ground, that place will have a drought for three years.” Therefore, out of compassion, he swallowed the two teeth instead of spitting them out. This event was commemorated in the proverb, “One just swallows his loose teeth, blood and all.” Bodhidharma said nothing, but simply turned on his heel and left the monastery. He stepped on a reed to ford the Yangtze River and went to Shaolin Monastery on Sung Mountain in Henan Province. There he sat facing a wall for nine years, contemplating the subtleties of Chan principles.

      神光洋洋得意,以为自己是胜利者,不知达摩修忍辱波罗蜜行门。菩提达摩刚走,无常鬼就来了,对神光法师说:「你是神光吗?」

      Meanwhile, Master Shenguang felt in rare high spirits, since he considered himself the victor. He had no idea that Patriarch Bodhidharma was cultivating the perfection of “patience under insult.” As soon as Patriarch Bodhidharma departed, the Ghost of Impermanence arrived, and said to Master Shenguang, “Are you Shenguang?”

      神光说:「我是神光,有什么事情?」

      Master Shenguang replied, “That's me. What's up?”

      无常鬼说:「我奉阎罗王的命令,请你去喝茶,谈谈你讲了多少经?念了多少经?还有多少经没有讲、没有念?」

      The ghost answered, “I'm under orders from King Yama to invite you to a tea party. King Yama wants to discuss with you how many Sutras you have lectured on, how many you have recited, and how many Sutras you haven't yet explained and recited.”

      神光一听,吓得魂飞九霄云外,知道寿命将终,乃恳求地问:「谁能了生死,不受阎王所管?」

      At that, Master Shenguang was scared out of his wits; he knew he was at death's door. He pleaded with the ghost, “Who can put an end to birth and death, and escape King Yama's jurisdiction?”

      无常鬼说:「就是刚才那个满脸大胡子,被你打掉两颗牙齿的黑和尚。」

      The Ghost of Impermanence answered, “That bushy-bearded, dark-skinned monk whose two front teeth you just knocked out a moment ago.” The answer sparked a feeling of deep regret in Master Shenguang, because he had lost his temper in ignorance and thereby driven away an enlightened sage.

      神光一听,后悔自己不应该发无明火,将证果圣人打跑了。于是乎向无常鬼要求:「能不能让我去找那个和尚,学学了生死之法?」

      He made a further request of the Ghost of Impermanence, “Would it be possible for me to go find that monk and learn how to put an end to birth and death?”

      无常鬼同情地说:「可以!不过速去速回,我好交差,否则我担待不起。」

      The Ghost of Impermanence answered sympathetically, “Very well, but do hurry a bit and get the business done and return so that I can turn in my duty-sheet. Otherwise I won't be able to cover for you.”

      神光日夜赶路,急追达摩,追到嵩山,远见达摩祖师面壁而坐。他欣喜若狂,急忙来到达摩祖师面前,恭恭敬敬地顶礼,忏悔地说:「请和尚慈悲,宽恕弟子鲁莽,不知和尚是证果圣人,多所冒犯,请和尚赐我了生死之法。」

      Master Shenguang lost no time in pursuing Patriarch Bodhidharma, travelling by day and by night. He finally reached Sung Mountain and, looking from a distance, saw the Patriarch sitting in meditation facing a wall. Overwhelmed with joy, he rushed up to Patriarch Bodhidharma and bowed with deep reverence. He repented humbly, “Venerable One, please be compassionate and forgive your brash disciple. I didn't know you were a sage who has realized the fruition of the Path. Your disciple made a mistake. Won't you please confer on me the method for resolving the matter of birth and death?”

      达摩回头一看,没有说话,继续打坐。神光跪在达摩面前不起来,一跪就是九年。

      Patriarch Bodhidharma turned his head around to look at him, then resumed his meditation without saying a single word. Master Shenguang knelt before Patriarch Bodhidharma and did not rise. Thus he knelt for nine years.

      我们参禅打坐,坐不到两小时,腰也酸了,腿也疼了,就受不了。或者打吃饭的妄想,或者打喝蜜水的妄想。总而言之,心猿意马,控制不住,时时刻刻想往外跑。神光法师为法忘躯的求法精神,一跪就是九年,我们现在谁能跪九个小时,恐怕办不到!

      Now as we meditate here, investigating Chan, our backs get sore and our legs start to hurt, and we feel we can't take it after only two hours have passed. We may indulge in idle thoughts of food, or something sweet to drink. To sum it up, we can't control the monkey-like thoughts or the “wild stallion of the mind.” We'd like nothing better than to jump up and run out the door. Dharma Master Shenguang's sincere request for Dharma led him to forget himself in that search and inspired him to kneel for nine years. I doubt that any of you could kneel for even nine hours, much less nine years.

      有一天,天降大雪,神光仍然跪在达摩面前,雪厚约有两尺之深。此时,达摩抬头一见,深受神光这种求法的精神所感动,便问:「你跪在这里做什么?」

      One day after heavy snow fell two feet deep, Master Shenguang was kneeling as usual in front of Patriarch Bodhidharma. The Patriarch looked up at him, and, impressed by his sincerity in seeking the Dharma, asked him, “What are you doing kneeling here?”

      神光说:「恳求和尚慈悲,传授躲阎王之法。」

      Master Shenguang replied, “I sincerely hope the Venerable One will be compassionate and transmit to me the method for getting free from King Yama.”

      达摩说:「求法不是容易事,等天降红雪时,再传法给你。」

      Patriarch Bodhidharma said, “It's no simple matter to seek the Dharma. Wait until the snow falls red, and then I'll transmit it to you.”

      神光一想:「释迦牟尼佛在往昔作菩萨时,为求半句偈,宁舍身命。」这念一起,他福至心灵,见石壁上挂了一把戒刀,乃取下来,砍断自己的左臂,血涌如泉,于是将雪染成红雪。他捧红雪来到达摩面前,请求传法。

      Master Shenguang reflected, “Shakyamuni Buddha, while culti-vating the Bodhisattva path in the past, gave up his life in exchange for only half a verse of Dharma.” As soon as this thought occurred to him, another idea dawned, and seeing a precept knife hanging on the cliff wall, he seized it and slashed off his left arm. Blood gushed out like a fountain, staining the snow on the ground bright red. He scooped up a handful and took it to show Patriarch Bodhidharma and requested him to transmit the Dharma.

      达摩说:「你为法断臂,求法真诚。」于是将不立文字,教外别传,直指人心,见性成佛之法传授于神光,并改其名为慧可。

      Patriarch Bodhidharma said, “Since you can cut off your own arm for the sake of the Dharma, your sincerity must be genuine.” There-upon, he transmitted to Master Shenguang the method of “seeing the nature and becoming a Buddha,” the method that points directly to the mind, the special transmission apart from the teachings, the Dharma that words cannot contain. He then changed Master Shen-guang's name to Huike (Wise and Able)。

      慧可又问:「我心未宁,乞师与安。」

      Master Huike said, “My mind is not at peace. Can the Master please quiet it for me?”

      达摩祖师说:「将心来,与汝安。」

      Patriarch Bodhidharma answered, “Fetch your mind, and I'll quiet it for you.”

      慧可沉默良久,然后才说:「觅心了不可得。」

      Master Huike thought this over for a long time and then said, “I've looked, but my mind cannot be gotten at anywhere.”

      达摩祖师说:「我与汝安心竟。」

      Patriarch Bodhidharma replied, “I've already quieted it for you!”

      慧可豁然大悟,成为禅宗第二祖。后将衣钵心法传授于三祖僧璨大师,三祖又传四祖道信大师,四祖再传于五祖弘忍大师,五祖传于六祖惠能大师,此时禅宗分为两派。北宗以神秀为代表,主张「拂尘看净,成为渐悟」,他的偈颂:

      身是菩提树,

      心如明镜台;

      时时勤拂拭,

      勿使惹尘埃。

      Master Huike suddenly experienced a great awakening and became the Second Patriarch of the Chan School. Later, he transmitted the robe and bowl and the Mind Dharma to the Third Patriarch, Great Master Sengcan (Sangha Gem), who then passed it on to the Fourth Patriarch, Great Master Daoxin (Faith in the Path), who further passed it on to the Fifth Patriarch, the Great Master Hungren (Vast Patience)。 Then it was transmitted to the Sixth Patriarch, the Great Master Huineng (Kind and Capable)。 At that point, the Chan School divided into two regional groups. It was represented in the North by Venerable Shenxiu (Divine Talent)。 He advocated “sweeping away the dust and observing the remaining purity,” and this was called “the gradual enlightenment method.” He wrote the verse:

      The body is a Bodhi-tree,

      The mind a mirror-stand bright.

      Time and again wipe it clean;

      Let no dust alight.

      南宗以惠能为代表,主张「立即开悟,成为顿悟」,他的偈颂:

      菩提本无树,

      明镜亦非台;

      本来无一物,

      何处惹尘埃?

      The Southern School's representative was Great Master Huineng, who advocated immediate awakening, and this was called “the sudden enlightenment method.” His verse says:

      Originally there is no Bodhi-tree,

      Nor any mirror-stand bright.

      Originally there is nothing at all.

      Where could the dust alight?

      南宗后来分为五宗,就是沩仰宗、临济宗、曹洞宗、云门宗、法眼宗。

      根据达摩的偈颂说:

      吾本来兹土,

      传法救迷情;

      一华开五叶,

      结果自然成。

      The Southern School later divided into five sects: the Weiyang, the Linji, the Caodong, the Yunmen, and the Fayen.

      The Venerable Bodhidharma wrote a verse about this that goes,

      My purpose in coming to this land,

      Was to transmit the Dharma and rescue

      confused beings.

      One flower blossoms with five petals,

      And the fruit will come ripe all by itself.

      果然到了六祖时,分为五宗。这种法在中国一代一代传承下来,现在又把这法传到美国来,但是不需要跪求,只要诚心修行,就可以得到这种法要。

      And as it turned out, when the Sixth Patriarch's era came, the School did divide into five sects. The Dharma was transmitted in China from generation to generation, and now it has come to America. No one has to kneel to request it, however. All you need to do is to cultivate sincerely, and the essential teachings of this Dharma can be yours.

      一九八○年禅七十二月开示

      A talk given in December, 1980,

      during a Chan session

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